On this day in history, October 3
|Updated: 10/03 5:32 pm
||Published: 10/03 5:32 pm
- 52 BC – Vercingetorix, leader of the Gauls, surrenders to the Romans under Julius Caesar, ending the siege and Battle of Alesia.
- 42 BC – First Battle of Philippi: Triumvirs Mark Antony and Octavian fight a decisive battle with Caesar's assassins Brutus and Cassius.
- 382 – Emperor Theodosius I concludes a peace treaty with the Goths and settles them in the Balkans in exchange for military service.
- 1283 – Dafydd ap Gruffydd, prince of Gwynedd in Wales, is the first nobleman to be executed by hanging, drawing and quartering.
- 1574 – The Siege of Leiden is lifted by the Watergeuzen.
- 1683 – The Qing Dynasty naval commander Shi Lang reaches Taiwan (under the Kingdom of Tungning) to receive the formal surrender of Zheng Keshuang and Liu Guoxuan after the Battle of Penghu.
- 1712 – The Duke of Montrose issues a warrant for the arrest of Rob Roy MacGregor.
- 1739 – The Treaty of Nissa is signed by the Ottoman Empire and Russia at the end of the Russian-Turkish War, 1736–1739.
- 1778 – Captain James Cook anchors in Alaska.
- 1789 – George Washington makes the first Thanksgiving Day designated by the national government of the United States of America.
- 1835 – The Staedtler Company is founded in Nuremberg, Germany.
- 1849 – American author Edgar Allan Poe is found delirious in a gutter in Baltimore, Maryland under mysterious circumstances; it is the last time he is seen in public before his death.
- 1863 – The last Thursday in November is declared as Thanksgiving Day by President Abraham Lincoln as are Thursdays, November 30, 1865 and November 29, 1866.
- 1872 – The Bloomingdale brothers opened their first store at 938 Third Avenue, New York City.
- 1873 – Captain Jack and companions are hanged for their part in the Modoc War.
- 1912 – U.S. forces defeat Nicaraguan rebels under the command of Benjamín Zeledón at the Battle of Coyotepe Hill.
- 1918 – King Boris III of Bulgaria accedes to the throne.
- 1919 – Cincinnati Reds pitcher Adolfo Luque becomes the first Latin player to appear in a World Series.
- 1929 – The Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes is renamed to Kingdom of Yugoslavia, "Land of the South Slavs".
- 1932 – Iraq gains independence from the United Kingdom.
- 1935 – Second Italo-Abyssinian War: Italy invades Ethiopia under General de Bono.
- 1942 – Spaceflight: The first successful launch of a V-2 /A4-rocket from Test Stand VII at Peenemünde, Germany. It is the first man-made object to reach space.
- 1949 – WERD, the 1st black-owned radio station in the United States, opens in Atlanta, Georgia.
- 1950 – Korean War: The First Battle of Maryang San, primarily pitting Australian and British forces against communist China, begins.
- 1952 – The United Kingdom successfully tests a nuclear weapon to become the world's third nuclear power.
- 1955 – The Mickey Mouse Club debuts on ABC.
- 1957 – Allen Ginsberg's Howl and Other Poems is ruled to be not obscene by the California State Superior Court.
- 1961 – The Dick Van Dyke Show premieres on CBS-TV in the United States.
- 1962 – Project Mercury: Sigma 7 is launched from Cape Canaveral, with Astronaut Wally Schirra aboard, for a six-orbit, nine-hour flight.
- 1963 – A violent coup in Honduras pre-empts the October 13 election, ends a period of reform, and begins two decades of military rule.
- 1964 – First Buffalo Wings are made at the Anchor Bar in Buffalo, New York.
- 1981 – The hunger strike by Provisional Irish Republican Army and Irish National Liberation Army prisoners at the Maze Prison in Northern Ireland ends after seven months and ten deaths.
- 1985 – The Space Shuttle Atlantis makes its maiden flight. (Mission STS-51-J).
- 1986 – TASCC, a superconducting cyclotron at the Chalk River Laboratories, is officially opened.
- 1990 – German reunification. The German Democratic Republic ceases to exist and its territory becomes part of the Federal Republic of Germany. East German citizens became part of the European Community, which later became the European Union. Now celebrated as German Unity Day.
- 1993 – Battle of Mogadishu: In an attempt to capture officials of warlord Mohamed Farrah Aidid's organisation in Mogadishu, Somalia, 18 US soldiers and about 1,000 Somalis are killed in heavy fighting.
- 1995 – O. J. Simpson is acquitted of the murders of Nicole Brown Simpson and Ronald Goldman.
- 2008 – The Emergency Economic Stabilization Act of 2008 for the US financial system is signed by President Bush.
- 2009 – The presidents of Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, and Turkey sign the Nakhchivan Agreement on the Establishment of Turkic Council.
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